Course Description

This course extends students’ experience with functions. Students will investigate the properties of polynomial, rational, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; develop techniques for combining functions; broaden their understanding of rates of change; and develop facility in applying these concepts and skills. Students will also refine their use of the mathematical processes necessary for success in senior mathematics. This course is intended both for students taking the Calculus and Vectors course as a prerequisite for a university program and for those wishing to consolidate their understanding of mathematics before proceeding to any one of a variety of university programs.

Overall Provincial Curriculum Expectations

A: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

1. demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between exponential expressions and logarithmic expressions, evaluate logarithms, and apply the laws of logarithms to simplify numeric expressions;
2. identify and describe some key features of the graphs of logarithmic functions, make connections among the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of logarithmic functions, and solve related problems graphically;
3. solve exponential and simple logarithmic equations in one variable algebraically, including those in problems arising from real-world applications.

B: Trigonometric Functions

1. demonstrate an understanding of the meaning and application of radian measure;
2. make connections between trigonometric ratios and the graphical and algebraic representations of the corresponding trigonometric functions and between trigonometric functions and their reciprocals, and use these connections to solve problems;
3. solve problems involving trigonometric equations and prove trigonometric identities.

C: Polynomial and Rational Functions

1. identify and describe some key features of polynomial functions, and make connections between the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of polynomial functions;
2. identify and describe some key features of the graphs of rational functions, and represent rational functions graphically;
3. solve problems involving polynomial and simple rational equations graphically and algebraically;
4. demonstrate an understanding of solving polynomial and simple rational inequalities.

D: Characteristics of Functions

1. demonstrate an understanding of average and instantaneous rate of change, and determine, numerically and graphically, and interpret the average rate of change of a function over a given interval and the instantaneous rate of change of a function at a given point;
2. determine functions that result from the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of two functions and from the composition of two functions, describe some properties of the resulting functions, and solve related problems;
3. compare the characteristics of functions, and solve problems by modelling and reasoning with functions, including problems with solutions that are not accessible by standard algebraic techniques.

Specific Provincial Curriculum Expectations

A1: Evaluating Logarithms

• 1.1 recognize the logarithm of a number to a given base as the exponent to which the base must be raised to get the number, recognize the operation of finding the logarithm to be the inverse operation (i.e., the undoing or reversing) of exponentiation, and evaluate simple logarithmic expressions
• 1.2 determine, with technology, the approximate logarithm of a number to any base, including base 10 (e.g., by reasoning that $\log_{3} 29$ is between 3 and 4 and using systematic trial to determine that $\log_{3} 29$ is approximately 3.07)
• 1.3 make connections between related logarithmic and exponential equations, and solve simple exponential equations by rewriting them in logarithmic form
• 1.4 make connections between the laws of exponents and the laws of logarithms, verify the laws of logarithms with or without technology (e.g., use patterning to verify the quotient law for logarithms by evaluating expressions such as $\log_{10} 1000 – \log_{10} 100$ and then rewriting the answer as a logarithmic term to the same base), and use the laws of logarithms to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions

A2: Connecting Graphs and Equations of Logarithmic Functions

• 2.1 determine, through investigation with technology (e.g., graphing calculator, spreadsheet) and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, increasing/decreasing behaviour) of the graphs of logarithmic functions of the form $f(x) = \log_{b} x$, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these logarithmic functions
• 2.2 recognize the relationship between an exponential function and the corresponding logarithmic function to be that of a function and its inverse, deduce that the graph of a logarithmic function is the reflection of the graph of the corresponding exponential function in the line $y = x$, and verify the deduction using technology
• 2.3 determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters $d$ and $c$ in functions of the form $y = \log_{10} (x – d) + c$ and the roles of the parameters $a$ and $k$ in functions of the form $y = a\log_{10} (kx)$, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graph of $f(x) = \log_{10}x$ (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)
• 2.4 pose problems based on real-world applications of exponential and logarithmic functions (e.g., exponential growth and decay, the Richter scale, the pH scale, the decibel scale), and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from a table of values or from its equation

A3: Solving Exponential and Logarithmic Equations

• 3.1 recognize equivalent algebraic expressions involving logarithms and exponents, and simplify expressions of these types
• 3.2 solve exponential equations in one variable by determining a common base (e.g., solve $4^x = 8^{x+3}$ by expressing each side as a power of 2) and by using logarithms (e.g., solve $4^x = 8^{x+3}$ by taking the logarithm base 2 of both sides), recognizing that logarithms base 10 are commonly used (e.g., solving $3^x = 7$ by taking the logarithm base 10 of both sides)
• 3.3 solve simple logarithmic equations in one variable algebraically
• 3.4 solve problems involving exponential and logarithmic equations algebraically, including problems arising from real-world applications

B1: Understanding and Applying Radian Measure

• 1.1 recognize the radian as an alternative unit to the degree for angle measurement, define the radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc that subtends this angle at the centre of a unit circle, and develop and apply the relationship between radian and degree measure
• 1.2 represent radian measure in terms of $\pi$ (e.g., $\frac{\pi}{3}$ radians, $2\pi$ radians) and as a rational number (e.g., 1.05 radians, 6.28 radians)
• 1.3 determine, with technology, the primary trigonometric ratios (i.e., sine, cosine, tangent) and the reciprocal trigonometric ratios (i.e., cosecant, secant, cotangent) of angles expressed in radian measure
• 1.4 determine, without technology, the exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios and the reciprocal trigonometric ratios for the special angles $0, \frac{\pi}{6},\frac{\pi}{4},\frac{\pi}{3},\frac{\pi}{2}$, and their multiples less than or equal to $2\pi$

B2: Connecting Graphs and Equations of Trigonometric Functions

• 2.1 sketch the graphs of $f(x) = \sin x$ and $f(x) = \cos x$ for angle measures expressed in radians, and determine and describe some key properties (e.g., period of $2\pi$, amplitude of 1) in terms of radians
• 2.2 make connections between the tangent ratio and the tangent function by using technology to graph the relationship between angles in radians and their tangent ratios and defining this relationship as the function $f(x) = \tan x$, and describe key properties of the tangent function
• 2.3 graph, with technology and using the primary trigonometric functions, the reciprocal trigonometric functions (i.e., cosecant, secant, cotangent) for angle measures expressed in radians, determine and describe key properties of the reciprocal functions (e.g., state the domain, range, and period, and identify and explain the occurrence of asymptotes), and recognize notations used to represent the reciprocal functions
• 2.4 determine the amplitude, period, and phase shift of sinusoidal functions whose equations are given in the form $y = a \sin (k(x – d)) + c$ or $y = a \cos(k(x – d)) + c$, with angles expressed in radians
• 2.5 sketch graphs of $y = a \sin (k(x – d)) + c$ and $y = a \cos(k(x – d)) + c$ by applying transformations to the graphs of $f(x) = \sin x$ and $f(x) = \cos x$ with angles expressed in radians, and state the period, amplitude, and phase shift of the transformed functions
• 2.6 represent a sinusoidal function with an equation, given its graph or its properties, with angles expressed in radians
• 2.7 pose problems based on applications involving a trigonometric function with domain expressed in radians (e.g., seasonal changes in temperature, heights of tides, hours of daylight, displacements for oscillating springs), and solve these and other such problems by using a given graph or a graph generated with or without technology from a table of values or from its equation

B3: Solving Trigonometric Equations

• 3.1 recognize equivalent trigonometric expressions [e.g., by using the angles in a right triangle to recognize that $\sin x$ and $\cos (\frac{\pi}{2} – x)$ are equivalent; by using transformations to recognize that $\cos (x + \frac{\pi}{2})$ and $–\sin x$ are equivalent], and verify equivalence using graphing technology
• 3.2 explore the algebraic development of the compound angle formulas (e.g., verify the formulas in numerical examples, using technology; follow a demonstration of the algebraic development [student reproduction of the development of the general case is not required]), and use the formulas to determine exact values of trigonometric ratios
• 3.3 recognize that trigonometric identities are equations that are true for every value in the domain (i.e., a counter-example can be used to show that an equation is not an identity), prove trigonometric identities through the application of reasoning skills, using a variety of relationships, and verify identities using technology
• 3.4 solve linear and quadratic trigonometric equations, with and without graphing technology, for the domain of real values from $0$ to $2\pi$, and solve related problems

C1: Connecting Graphs and Equations of Polynomial Functions

• 1.1 recognize a polynomial expression (i.e., a series of terms where each term is the product of a constant and a power of x with a nonnegative integral exponent, such as $x^3 – 5x^2 + 2x – 1$); recognize the equation of a polynomial function, give reasons why it is a function, and identify linear and quadratic functions as examples of polynomial functions
• 1.2 compare, through investigation using graphing technology, the numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations of polynomial (i.e., linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic) functions (e.g., compare finite differences in tables of values; investigate the effect of the degree of a polynomial function on the shape of its graph and the maximum number of x-intercepts; investigate the effect of varying the sign of the leading coefficient on the end behaviour of the function for very large positive or negative x-values)
• 1.3 describe key features of the graphs of polynomial functions (e.g., the domain and range, the shape of the graphs, the end behaviour of the functions for very large positive or negative x-values)
• 1.4 distinguish polynomial functions from sinusoidal and exponential functions [e.g., $f(x) = \sin x$, $g(x) = 2^x$ ], and compare and contrast the graphs of various polynomial functions with the graphs of other types of functions
• 1.5 make connections, through investigation using graphing technology (e.g., dynamic geometry software), between a polynomial function given in factored form [e.g., f(x) = 2(x – 3)(x + 2)(x – 1)] and the x-intercepts of its graph, and sketch the graph of a polynomial function given in factored form using its key features (e.g., by determining intercepts and end behaviour; by locating positive and negative regions using test values between and on either side of the x-intercepts)
• 1.6 determine, through investigation using technology, the roles of the parameters $a, k, d, c$ in functions of the form $y = af (k(x – d)) + c$, and describe these roles in terms of transformations on the graphs of $f(x) = x^3$ and $f(x) = x^4$ (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes)
• 1.7 determine an equation of a polynomial function that satisfies a given set of conditions (e.g., degree of the polynomial, intercepts, points on the function), using methods appropriate to the situation (e.g., using the x-intercepts of the function; using a trial-and-error process with a graphing calculator or graphing software; using finite differences), and recognize that there may be more than one polynomial function that can satisfy a given set of conditions (e.g., an infinite number of polynomial functions satisfy the condition that they have three given x-intercepts)
• 1.8 determine the equation of the family of polynomial functions with a given set of zeros and of the member of the family that passes through another given point [e.g., a family of polynomial functions of degree 3 with zeros 5, –3, and –2 is defined by the equation f(x) = k(x – 5)(x + 3)(x + 2), where $k$ is a real number, $k \neq 0$; the member of the family that passes through (–1, 24) is f(x) = –2(x – 5)(x + 3)(x + 2)]
• 1.9 determine, through investigation, and compare the properties of even and odd polynomial functions [e.g., symmetry about the y-axis or the origin; the power of each term; the number of x-intercepts; $f(x) = f(– x)$ or $f(– x) = – f (x)$], and determine whether a given polynomial function is even, odd, or neither

C2: Connecting Graphs and Equations of Rational Functions

• 2.1 determine, through investigation with and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, positive/negative intervals, increasing/decreasing intervals) of the graphs of rational functions that are the reciprocals of linear and quadratic functions, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these rational functions
• 2.2 determine, through investigation with and without technology, key features (i.e., vertical and horizontal asymptotes, domain and range, intercepts, positive/negative intervals, increasing/decreasing intervals) of the graphs of rational functions that have linear expressions in the numerator and denominator, and make connections between the algebraic and graphical representations of these rational functions
• 2.3 sketch the graph of a simple rational function using its key features, given the algebraic representation of the function

C3: Solving Polynomial and Rational Equations

• 3.1 make connections, through investigation using technology (e.g., computer algebra systems), between the polynomial function f(x), the divisor x – a, the remainder from the division $\frac{f(x)}{x-a}$, and f(a) to verify the remainder theorem and the factor theorem
• 3.2 factor polynomial expressions in one variable, of degree no higher than four, by selecting and applying strategies (i.e., common factoring, difference of squares, trinomial factoring, factoring by grouping, remainder theorem, factor theorem)
• 3.3 determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., graphing calculator, computer algebra systems), the connection between the real roots of a polynomial equation and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding polynomial function, and describe this connection
• 3.4 solve polynomial equations in one variable, of degree no higher than four (e.g., $2x^3 – 3x^2 + 8x – 12 = 0$), by selecting and applying strategies (i.e., common factoring, difference of squares, trinomial factoring, factoring by grouping, remainder theorem, factor theorem), and verify solutions using technology (e.g., using computer algebra systems to determine the roots; using graphing technology to determine the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding polynomial function)
• 3.5 determine, through investigation using technology (e.g., graphing calculator, computer algebra systems), the connection between the real roots of a rational equation and the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding rational function, and describe this connection
• 3.6 solve simple rational equations in one variable algebraically, and verify solutions using technology (e.g., using computer algebra systems to determine the roots; using graphing technology to determine the x-intercepts of the graph of the corresponding rational function)
• 3.7 solve problems involving applications of polynomial and simple rational functions and equations [e.g., problems involving the factor theorem or remainder theorem, such as determining the values of k for which the function $y= x^3 + 6x^2 + kx – 4$ gives the same remainder when divided by x – 1 and x + 2]

C4: Solving Inequalities

• 4.1 explain, for polynomial and simple rational functions, the difference between the solution to an equation in one variable and the solution to an inequality in one variable, and demonstrate that given solutions satisfy an inequality
• 4.2 determine solutions to polynomial inequalities in one variable [e.g., solve $y\geq 0$, where $y = x^3 – x^2 + 3x – 9$] and to simple rational inequalities in one variable by graphing the corresponding functions, using graphing technology, and identifying intervals for which x satisfies the inequalities
• 4.3 solve linear inequalities and factorable polynomial inequalities in one variable (e.g., $x^3 + x^2 > 0$) in a variety of ways (e.g., by determining intervals using x-intercepts and evaluating the corresponding function for a single x-value within each interval; by factoring the polynomial and identifying the conditions for which the product satisfies the inequality), and represent the solutions on a number line or algebraically

D1: Understanding Rates of Change

• 1.1 gather, interpret, and describe information about real-world applications of rates of change, and recognize different ways of representing rates of change (e.g., in words, numerically, graphically, algebraically)
• 1.2 recognize that the rate of change for a function is a comparison of changes in the dependent variable to changes in the independent variable, and distinguish situations in which the rate of change is zero, constant, or changing by examining applications, including those arising from real-world situations (e.g., rate of change of the area of a circle as the radius increases, inflation rates, the rising trend in graduation rates among Aboriginal youth, speed of a cruising aircraft, speed of a cyclist climbing a hill, infection rates)
• 1.3 sketch a graph that represents a relationship involving rate of change, as described in words, and verify with technology (e.g., motion sensor) when possible
• 1.4 calculate and interpret average rates of change of functions (e.g., linear, quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal) arising from real-world applications (e.g., in the natural, physical, and social sciences), given various representations of the functions (e.g., tables of values, graphs, equations)
• 1.5 recognize examples of instantaneous rates of change arising from real-world situations, and make connections between instantaneous rates of change and average rates of change (e.g., an average rate of change can be used to approximate an instantaneous rate of change)
• 1.6 determine, through investigation using various representations of relationships (e.g., tables of values, graphs, equations), approximate instantaneous rates of change arising from real-world applications (e.g., in the natural, physical, and social sciences) by using average rates of change and reducing the interval over which the average rate of change is determined
• 1.7 make connections, through investigation, between the slope of a secant on the graph of a function (e.g., quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal) and the average rate of change of the function over an interval, and between the slope of the tangent to a point on the graph of a function and the instantaneous rate of change of the function at that point
• 1.8 determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., using a table of values to calculate slopes of secants or graphing secants and measuring their slopes with technology), the approximate slope of the tangent to a given point on the graph of a function (e.g., quadratic, exponential, sinusoidal) by using the slopes of secants through the given point (e.g., investigating the slopes of secants that approach the tangent at that point more and more closely), and make connections to average and instantaneous rates of change
• 1.9 solve problems involving average and instantaneous rates of change, including problems arising from real-world applications, by using numerical and graphical methods (e.g., by using graphing technology to graph a tangent and measure its slope)

D2: Combining Functions

• 2.1 determine, through investigation using graphing technology, key features (e.g., domain, range, maximum/minimum points, number of zeros) of the graphs of functions created by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing functions
• 2.2 recognize real-world applications of combinations of functions (e.g., the motion of a damped pendulum can be represented by a function that is the product of a trigonometric function and an exponential function; the frequencies of tones associated with the numbers on a telephone involve the addition of two trigonometric functions), and solve related problems graphically
• 2.3 determine, through investigation, and explain some properties (i.e., odd, even, or neither; increasing/decreasing behaviours) of functions formed by adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing general functions
• 2.4 determine the composition of two functions [i.e., f(g(x))] numerically (i.e., by using a table of values) and graphically, with technology, for functions represented in a variety of ways (e.g., function machines, graphs, equations), and interpret the composition of two functions in real-world applications
• 2.5 determine algebraically the composition of two functions [i.e., f(g(x))], verify that f(g(x)) is not always equal to g( f(x)) [e.g., by determining f(g(x)) and g( f(x)), given f(x) = x + 1 and g(x) = 2x], and state the domain [i.e., by defining f(g(x)) for those x-values for which g(x) is defined and for which it is included in the domain of f(x)] and the range of the composition of two functions
• 2.6 solve problems involving the composition of two functions, including problems arising from real-world applications
• 2.7 demonstrate, by giving examples for functions represented in a variety of ways (e.g., function machines, graphs, equations), the property that the composition of a function and its inverse function maps a number onto itself
• 2.8 make connections, through investigation using technology, between transformations (i.e., vertical and horizontal translations; reflections in the axes; vertical and horizontal stretches and compressions to and from the x- and y-axes) of simple functions f(x) [e.g., $f(x) = x^3 + 20$, $f(x) = \sin x$, $f(x) = \log x$] and the composition of these functions with a linear function of the form $g(x) = A(x + B)$

D3: Using Function Models to Solve Problems

• 3.1 compare, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., graphing with technology; comparing algebraic representations; comparing finite differences in tables of values) the characteristics (e.g., key features of the graphs, forms of the equations) of various functions (i.e., polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic)
• 3.2 solve graphically and numerically equations and inequalities whose solutions are not accessible by standard algebraic techniques
• 3.3 solve problems, using a variety of tools and strategies, including problems arising from real-world applications, by reasoning with functions and by applying concepts and procedures involving functions (e.g., by constructing a function model from data, using the model to determine mathematical results, and interpreting and communicating the results within the context of the problem).